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FlooringThe Different Types of Subflooring and Underlayments
Floors are made up of several layers. Beyond the walking surface, meaning the flooring, the strength and durability of the floor rely on the structure of the house, joists, subfloor, and underlayment. When building or renovating a floor, you have to think about each of these layers, as they play a much more important role than one may know.
In this article, we’ll focus on the different subflooring and underlayments most commonly used. We'll start by presenting the main types of subfloors available on the market, and then take a more in-depth look at which ones are best suited according to the type of underlay and flooring installed atop it.
When choosing the type of subflooring you’d like to install, consider both the flooring material as well as the underlay above which the subflooring will be installed. There are four main surface categories:
Depending on the type of flooring you choose to install, choose a subfloor and underlayment that allows you to adapt the surface accordingly. Essentially, you'll want something to create a layer between the base and the flooring. This is to ensure that the floor is effective and resistant. Naturally, you'll want to avoid common problems such as a cold, crooked or wet floor. Subflooring can solve and prevent most of these problems.
However, you will need to make the right decision, as certain types of materials don’t work as well when paired with others. In summary, the main goal when it comes to underlayments is to create a flat surface, soundproof, protect the base, and other functions (depending on the environment and the type of floor).
When choosing your subfloor material, you likely already determined what type of surface is found between the joists and the flooring. With this information in hand, you can explore the different models and products on the market. You’ll soon see that there are a wide variety of options.
We’ve separated the different materials according to the main types of flooring materials. However, it’s important to specify that you will have to take into account other factors, especially regarding the type of environment in which you install your floor.
For example, if it’s a basement or bathroom floor, you’ll need to install a subfloor (base) as well as an underlayment that acts as a vapour barrier. Lastly, should you have any concerns about the materials used, and prefer to head the green route, keep this in mind when selecting your materials, or voice this concern to your contractor from the get-go.
Wood is a timeless material, known for its resistance and versatile appearance. There are several types of wood flooring, including hardwood and engineered wood. These floors are made from a wide variety of species. If you would like to know more, here are some articles to consult:
Here are the different types of subfloors and underlayments you can install under a wood floor:
A felt underlayment is sold in roll or tile form. It's easy to install, and its density has sound-absorbing properties that very much suit wood floors.
Rubber is a material that absorbs sound and resists humidity. Even if it’s more expensive than other materials, it’s very easy to install.
If you’re looking for a more ecological material than the two previous options, note that foam underlayments can be recycled. On the other hand, foam is sometimes less resistant than other materials. To make up for the shortcomings and benefit from its qualities, products combining two materials (foam and rubber or foam with a vapour barrier) are now retailed in most hardware stores.
For wooden flooring to remain in good condition for long periods, it has to breathe. Cork underlayment beneath such flooring protects it while providing a solid installation surface.
Hardwood should not be used in very humid rooms and basements. However, certain types of wood may be suitable for such an environment, provided that moisture doesn't accumulate between the layers of the floor. This is where it becomes worthwhile to install a vapour barrier underlay. This material can be used in combination with other types of subfloors when not already equipped with a protective layer.
All subflooring and underlays must be perfectly aligned to accommodate any flooring material. With that in mind, this factor is all the more important when it comes to a tiled floor, whether it be in a bathroom or kitchen. This is because an irregular surface could affect the stability of the tiles.
Here are the most commonly used underlayments paired with tiles (ceramic, stone, or other):
Fibre cement panels are made with a mixture of wood fibres and cement. Unlike cement board underlayments, the former are flexible and less likely to crack.
This is a high-quality underlayment that's reflected in its price point. On the other hand, a waterproofing membrane is well worth it and typically comes with an extended warranty. Some models are specially designed to accommodate underfloor heating cables.
This product will often be used when the solid base (subflooring) is uneven. Self-levelling cement is a miracle-like product. However, it’s not easy to apply. It is therefore highly recommended to use the services of an expert.
Vinyl and linoleum flooring have always had a bad reputation, but recent technological advancements have made these materials more durable and resistant. On the other hand, the subflooring and underlayment become even more important to ensure the durability of such flooring types, especially in older homes.
If you plan on using either of these flooring materials, it’s best that you install a plywood subfloor to provide a stable surface and additional support. The plywood should be about 1/4 inch thick.
Concerning laminate flooring and floating floor installation techniques, several of the above-mentioned underlayments are perfectly suitable options, such as foam and rubber.
However, here is another underlayment that can be paired with a durable subfloor (plywood or OSB) that has yet to be mentioned:
Laminate flooring, which is often installed using a technique that's commonly referred to as "floating flooring installation" tends to shift. Therefore, an acoustic membrane underlay can help mitigate noise and stabilize the flooring. As mentioned, this membrane can be installed on plywood.
Carpeting isn't as trendy as it used to be. It's most often seen in the basement or bedroom of older homes but is still used in other settings, including corporate office spaces. If you plan on installing carpeting, opt for a foam or rubber underlayment atop either a concrete or plywood subfloor.
This subflooring and underlayment guide is meant to be a general overview of the different options available on the market, whether that be concrete, plywood, OSB, etc. Note that other materials do exist and are not limited to the ones listed here. In some cases, you don't need to install an underlay and can lay your flooring of choice directly on the base surface (subfloor). However, in most cases, this is not an expert-recommended course of action, as underlayment can play an important role.
Also note that some flooring, most often laminate, comes already equipped with an underlayment. In this case, barring exceptions, there's no need to install an additional underlayment. However, make sure the subflooring (concrete, plywood, planks, etc.) on which your flooring is installed is properly levelled.
Underfloor heating is a subject in and of itself, and since it's a separate feature, we made sure to cover it in several interesting articles, such as these:
When it comes to installing a subfloor or an underlayment, you'll hear terms such as grade foundation, joints, square feet, joists, degree angles, crossing patterns, and common types of subfloors directed at you, and chances are, you might get completely lost in the jargon and not know which way to turn.
However, with the help of this trusty guide detailing the most common subfloors (plywood and OSB) and underlayments used with certain flooring, you can make a more informed decision when it comes to installing your new flooring.
That said, nothing is as valuable as the opinion of an expert. When the time comes to renovate a floor, especially if you're looking to change the subfloor and underlayment, an industry expert is the person you want to make decisions regarding the materials and installation technique used.
RenoQuotes.com can help you get quotes for your foyer flooring renovation project. If you submit your project to us, we’ll put you in contact with top-rated contractors. Fill in the form on the homepage (it only takes a few minutes), and you will get estimates from trusted professionals.
Last modified 2023-12-15
SoumissionRenovation.ca • 07 Nov 2023
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